The paradiplomacy of subnational governments in North America

  • Roberto Zepeda Martínez Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM


Objective: to determine the factors that have contributed to the expansion in the international activities of the subnational actors and to identify the issues that prevail in the relations between the Canadian provinces and the subnational states of North America. Likewise, to identify the strategies and mechanisms that favor the relationships between these subnational governments.

Methodology: the qualitative methodological strategy comprises of two dimensions: the first focuses on the factors which explain these dynamics and on the conceptual revision to refer to the transnational activities of subnational governments in North America, in particular the paradiplomacy. The second one examines official information, reports and publications from national and subnational governments in the region. Subsequently, the international activities of these governments were examined to determine their nature, characteristics and objectives.

Results: it was highlighted that the international activities of subnational governments are linked to economic development and to issues such as the environment, natural resources, sustainable development, security, culture, education, science and technology. They are carried out through institutional deliberation and decision-making forums, international offices and cooperation agreements.

Conclusions: subnational governments contribute to the governance of North America, through the formulation of regional public policies to face common challenges. The agreements are limited in the areas of jurisdiction of the subnational governments and, at the same time, they show/disclose a certain degree of autonomy with respect to the central government.


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Biografía del autor/a

Roberto Zepeda Martínez, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM

Doctor en Ciencias Políticas y Sociales. Investigador de Tiempo Completo del Centro de Investigaciones Sobre América del Norte (CISAN) de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM.

Cómo citar
Zepeda Martínez, R. (2018). The paradiplomacy of subnational governments in North America. ÁNFORA, 25(44), 43-67.